SVF Legal will be hosting a pesticide collection day on Friday, October 7th. Unwanted or obsolete pesticides can be dropped off at no charge. Please see brochure for details.
Preharvest spraying is done either for perennial weed control or to desiccate the crop prior to harvest.
Glyphosate products are primarily used for perennial weed control and the timing of the application is very important. Some excellent tips on the spray timing of glyphosate products can be found at: www.roundup.ca/preharvest . Preharvest glyphosate application may help even out a crop and is an excellent way to control canada thistle and quackgrass in a reduced tillage environment. Do not apply glyphosate to crops being kept for seed as it may adversely affect germination.
Desiccants are products that dry the crop and weeds more quickly than glyphosate but do not offer any perennial weed control. Weeds and crops may green up again after a few weeks because they were just dried down and not necessarily killed. Using desiccants can be an excellent way to harvest peas earlier and may reduce bleaching and earth tag. Desiccants are often used to spray potato crops and also cereal crops that are being kept for seed.
Our agronomists can help with the selection of products and the timing of application, both of which are important elements of successful preharvest spraying.
Book your seed treating early and save! Here are the details:
SVF Headstart mobile custom seed treating service is “the seed care that comes to you”. SVF Headstart offers professional, certified, high capacity treating on farm. Protect your investment, protect the genetic potential of your crop. Call your SVF branch and talk with an agronomist for more information and to book.
SVF is a part Albert Insect Pest Monitoring network which monitor the threshold of the bertha armyworms. We have traps set up by Legal and by St. Albert.
Bertha Armyworms are most commonly found in canola fields. They start as a pupa in the top 5-16 cm of the soil. Pupae are pod like structure that are reddish brown and about 0.5-1.8 size with terminal abdominal segments. Next stage is the larva stage which is when they are 0.3cm long and pale green with a yellow stripe on the side. At this stages larva are very hard to see because they like to stay on the underside of the leaves. The adult stage is a moth that we see from mid-June to early August that hangs around the canola plants secreting nectar. The adult moth is active at night and has a wing span of about 4 cm. The wings are mostly grey and fleck with patches of olive, with some black and brown and white scale, as well as a kidney- shaped white marking with a ring of whitish scales. Bertha armyworm can reproduce fast insight of five days and lays up to 3500 eggs. They lay them on the lower surface of the plant in groups of 50 to 500. When they are first laid they are white then they darken as they develop, the eggs are hard to see, ridged and pinhead size.
Larvae stage is when the bertha armyworm causes crop damage, as they feed on the plants. Most of the damage is done in three weeks between late July and August. You can tell that there is damage to your field if you find irregularly-shaped holes in the leaves. When leaves are hard to find they will feed on the seed pods. They like the seeds the most so they will “debark “the pod and chew right to the seed. Even if they don’t reach the seed they can weaken the structure of the pod and cause premature shattering.
Some years there are more bertha armyworms and you can see more damage. This year in our traps we saw a low population, but it’s something to always be aware of. Keep your eye out when you are walking your canola fields and talk to your agronomist if you begin to see symptoms.
|Blackleg||Canola||Pepper-like spots on canola leaves, stems and pods. Premature ripening (dying) plants Unlike sclerotinia, there are no black ‘sclerotia’
|Use disease free seed, and resistant varieties. Working infected stubble (incorporating) will help. Seed canola every fourth year.|
|Blackspot||Canola||Small, round, black spots on the stems and pods. Infected pods may shatter easily.||Follow a 3-4 year rotation with canola. Early swathing may reduce shattering losses.|
|Sclerotinia||Canola||Pale-grey to whitish lesions on branches and pods. Infections often where the stem and leaf join (crotch). Sclerotia (black bodies) will
form in the stem, branches and/or pods.
|Apply fungicide (done before symptoms appear). A 4-year rotation between susceptible crops, which includes peas, canola, and potatoes.|
|Common Root Rot||Cereals||Damping off (death) of seedlings, and reduced or decaying roots.||Delay seeding if soils are cool. Avoid growing continuous cereals. Seed treatments will provide some protection.|
|Ergot||Cereals||Cool damp weather in the spring will favor ergot. Purple to black bodies appear in place of kernels. Often found on the edges of fields
(indicates infection from headland grasses). If throughout the field, infection likely came from the seed or previous crop infection.
|Delayed swathing may allow ergot bodies to drop to the ground. Harvest infected areas separately. Adequate copper fertility levels helps
|Fusarium Head Blight||Wheat Barley||Infected heads ripen prematurely. Everything above infection point is white. Shriveled grain may have trace of pink on the seed.||Cultivation helps reduce levels in the soil. Use clean seed and seed a broadleaf crop after cereal.|
Plant disease is becoming a common issue because of short crop rotations and high yielding crops. Plants just like animals can get bacterial, viral and fungal diseases. Disease can happen in the leaf, stem, or even the root. Disease starts in the weakest or the most exposed part of the plant.
When plants are infected, they are robbed of nutrients and energy. With cereal leaf disease, the plants ability to produce food and energy is disrupted because photosynthetic area is reduced by leaf spots. The production capacity of your plants energy factory, the “healthy green leaf”, is diminished. Types of leaf diseases include blotch (septoria leaf, net, spot), leaf rust, powdery mildew, stripe rust and tan spot.
When disease infects the stem it blocks nutrient and water flow, which deprives the plant of nutrients and translates into smaller yields. Sclerotinia in Canola is a good example of a stem disease that cuts off nutrients to the pods and does not allow proper seed fill thus reducing yield.
The fundamental requirements for disease impact are the; host (crop), pathogen (disease), and environment. The disease triangle (Figure 1) illustrates that the crop, disease and environment must be present and conducive in order for disease to have a major impact on your crop.
High moisture levels, tight rotations and heavy stubble from previous crops are generally much more conducive to disease and correlate very strongly with the amount and severity of disease in a crop. For example rain in cereal wills often move the leaf disease from the bottom of the leaves up to the flag leaf. In cereals your flag leaf and 2nd last leaf are the main contributors to yield. This is why it’s very important to “protect the flag leaf” from getting leaf disease. Fungicides are protective, therefore you need to be proactive and prevent disease. With cereals you can start to see some of the leaf disease symptoms early. When scouting your fields look on the lower leafs for spots or striping. If you see disease developing you should consider spraying soon to stop the disease from moving up the plant.
Sclerotinia disease is much harder to predict because once you see the visual symptoms the damage is done and you are too late to spray. If you have a good canola crop and the environment is conducive to Sclerotinia you must spray proactively while the plant is still flowering. Sclerotinia fungicides are sprayed to protect the flower petals so that once they drop into the plant they are protected from disease. During harvest if you do have Sclerotinia the plants will appear white and often not produce any seed.
When you have a root disease like club root, it will inhibit the plants ability to uptake water and nutrients that are required for the plant to mature. This could lead to decrease in yield or even a completely dead plant. Currently there are no fungicides that control clubroot however you can purchase clubroot resistant seed varieties. It is important to have a clubroot management plant and a longer canola crop rotation can go a long way in reducing your clubroot risk.
It is important to scout for all of these diseases throughout the growing season and also note if you have any disease during harvest. Recent research done by SVF has shown strong yield responses with a fungicide application. We would be happy to go through this data with you and see if fungicide is a good fit on your farm. Fungicide application timing is different with every crop and the ideal timing will change depending on the disease pressure. With some crops, depending on disease pressure, you may even want to consider two applications of fungicide. Disease control is very important and it is something that needs to be monitored every year. Spraying fungicide can be the crucial last step to insure your crop’s yield potential is achieved! Talk to your local SVF agronomist for all of your fungicide and disease scouting needs.
Sturgeon Valley Fertilizers (SVF) has for several years now have been using a water conditioner from NutriAg called BB5 when spraying glyphosate (Roundup, etc.) through its custom application equipment. Water used for spraying is City of Edmonton treated drinking water – this is good drinking water but has some characteristics that can affect herbicide effectiveness. Water quality testing done by the City (posted on their website) shows that this water is slightly alkaline to alkaline (pH between 7.8 to 8.0) and medium high in minerals/carbonates. Alkaline water can cause a reaction called alkaline hydrolysis – this causes the degradation and reduced sensitivity of some pesticides, especially glyphosate (the active ingredient in Roundup). In addition, high mineral content antagonizes various herbicides (including glyphosate) and reduces control.
To maximize glyphosate effectiveness SVF has been conditioning sprayer water with BB5 at a rate of 1 litre per 800 us gal or with BB5 EXTRA at 0.33 litres per 800 us gal (using city water for preharvest applications). After conditioning, the sprayer water has a pH of about 5.5 and salts/minerals are bound so that there is effective, consistent glyphosate control. BB5 is available in 10 litre jugs from SVF for growers who do their own spraying.
If you are not sure if you need to condition your sprayer water then bring in a sample to SVF and have it tested by one of our agronomists for the proper rate of BB5. NOTE: Always consult with the pesticide label to see if there are restrictions for the use of water conditioners and at what pH the product works best at (some pesticides come with water conditioner to lower or raise the solution pH as required).
Thinking of seed treating or putting on a nutrient seed dressing this spring? If so, Sturgeon Valley Fertilizers has broad range of products to offer plus an on-farm custom treating service called HeadStart. Talk with one of our agronomists to find out more.
Below is a list of products offered by SVF that can be purchased for farm application or custom applied using SVF HeadStart mobile seed treating system:
Cereal Seed Treatment Products:
Pulse Seed Treatment Products:
Nutrient Seed Dressings:
“Precede” (Cereal, Canola, Pulse, Corn) from ATP
We endeavor to fully understand soil nutrition and how it feeds the crop. Once the soil is understood, we can think about how to best accommodate the crop’s needs. From the soil, crops need consistent nutrients, water and oxygen. Nutrients vary depending on what materials the soil is formed on, fertility additions and tillage practices. We have seen large differences in nutrients depending on different depths of soil. This is called nutrient stratification. When roots are fed in a layer lower in the soil during a dry period, and this layer is lower in certain nutrients, we can see deficiency symptoms appear. Double or triple depth sampling is the best way to understand where the shortcomings of nutrients may appear. We can then develop strategies to ensure your plants are receiving optimal nutrition, whether the conditions are wet or dry.
Diamond back moths are grayish in color with light diamond marks on their wings (about ½’’ in length). Their eggs are round and yellowish white. When the conditions are right, the moths travel with the wind in early May or early summer.
The larvae are light green and live on the underside of the leaves. When the larvae are small the damage shows up as small irregular holes in the leaf. Many larvae can destroy the whole leaf. The larva feed on leaves, buds, flower seed pods and the green outer layer of the stems.
The damage of these pests can be extremely costly. Keep an eye out on your field and you will save your yield. Our agronomists can help you determine the economic threshold of an application of insecticide.